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【佛典故事】五百陀罗尼 [英文] Five hundred Dharanis

[文献学]  发表时间: 2019-04-04 08:41 点击: [放大字体正常缩小] 关闭
各位菩萨,阿弥陀佛!
今天我们要继续跟大家讲到的佛典故事,是我们之前谈到的“共相怨害喻”。如果您忘记这个故事内容的话,可以简单地提醒您,这个就是有一个人为了要报复另外一个人的毁谤,所以他一直心心念念要报复对方;另外一个人就跟他讲说,有一个毘陀罗尼咒可以伤害对方,但是这个毘陀罗尼咒有一个祸患,就是它还没有伤害对方之前,它会先害到自己;这个人听了之后,不仅不会畏惧,反而心里觉得很欢喜,跟这个人说:我只求可以伤害对方,其他在所不惜。这个就是我们从这个故事来给大家讲的起源。
Bodhisattvas, Amitabha!
Today we will continue to talk about the story of “A Parable of Resentment and Harm from the “Buddhist Stories”. If the story has become blurry to you, here is a quick reminder: there was a man who wanted to revenge on another person who had slandered him. And there was another guy who told him about the Vinaya-Dharani that could hurt the person. However, this Vinaya-Dharani had a disadvantage, that is, before it hurt somebody else, it’s going to hurt the user himself first. He was not afraid at all even though he knew that it would hurt him first before he could hurt the other person. He would sacrifice whatever it took just to hurt the other guy. This is the story that we talked about in the first episode.
 
在给大家讲的时候,上一讲次我们有跟大家提到了这个故事里面,出现了一个关键词叫作毘陀罗尼咒。那毘陀罗尼咒这几个字里面,我们从陀罗尼这三个字跟大家讲起,所以我们上次有跟大家讲说,陀罗尼就是总持的意思,就是于一文、一法、一义当中,持一切的文、一切的法、一切的义。这个比喻,我们上次曾经从世间学习的角度来跟大家讲,这是世间的众生学习一切法会掌握的方法。另外一种的比喻,就是说总持就好像是一团的粽子,好多个粽子的时候,其实它们绑在一起,当你把核心的这个结把它提起来的时候,你相对地就把所有的粽子就给提起来了。所以陀罗尼讲起来,也像是你掌握了中间的这个关键之后,提起来之后,就可以把相对应的法、或是文、或是义把它给提起来。
When telling the story, we mentioned a key term “Vinaya-Dharanai”. Today, we will discuss more on this term. In the last episode, we’ve defined Dharani as “centralizing all dharmas and holding all meanings”. In other words, it means to summarize all dharmas, all articles and all meanings in only one article, or one dharma, or one meaning. We’ve used ways of study and learning in the secular world as analogies to help everybody understand the meaning of Dharani. We may also use a bunch of zongzi (rice dumplings) tied up together as another example for you to understand it. In Taiwan, zongzi are tied up together for sale. The strings that are used to tie zongzi are knotted. When you pull up the knot, you will lift up all the rice dumplings. A Dharani is like the string knot, the key. When you understand the key, you will be able to put together all the corresponding dharmas, or scriptures, or meanings.  
 
那今天我们要继续来告诉大家,在《大般若经》里面谈到的陀罗尼有更深入的陀罗尼。比方说在《般若经》里面谈到的,有所谓的五百陀罗尼,这个五百陀罗尼有好些个,有五百种不同的陀罗尼,比方说有所谓的闻持陀罗尼。所谓的闻持陀罗尼,就是听闻诸法而不会忘失。这个方式,很显然地跟我们前一个讲次讲的陀罗尼的入门的意思是一致的,它就是一种记忆的方式。也就是说,当你听闻了亲教师或者善知识讲了许多的法之后,你自己发展了一套记忆的方式,使得每一次听完了亲教师或者是善知识讲的内容之后,你都不会忘记。这个我们前面也举过一个比喻,比方说大家以前在考试的时候,如果是考文科的考历史、地理,那都有许多要记诵的事情,有许多的考生就会为了这个事情,发展了自己的一套记诵的方式,这个也就是闻持陀罗尼的本意。只不过这里的闻持陀罗尼一定是对于佛法而言,不再是讲世间法了。也就是说,听闻了诸佛法,而想办法发展了一套记忆的方式,使它不会忘失,这个叫闻持陀罗尼。
Today, we will be talking about some deeper Dharani that is mentioned in the Mahāprajñāpāramitā-sūtra. For instance, there are so-called five hundred Dharanis and one of which is called the Hear-and-Retain Dharani. It means to hear all dharmas and not to forget them. Apparently, this is consistent with the very basic meaning of Dharani that we have touched on in the first episode. It’s indeed a way of memorizing. It’s like you would come up with ways of memorizing after you hear all kinds of dharmas preached by the direct dharma teachers or the enlightened mentors and you would use them to remember what you have been told. Previously we have given an analogy regarding this. I’m going to repeat it again. For instance, when students prepare for exams, especially for liberal arts subjects, such as history or geography, they have to remember many things. So, many examinees would find their own ways to memorize the contents to be prepared. Hear-and-Retain Dharani means the same. However, this Hear-and -Retain Dharani concerns only the Buddha dharma, not the mundane dharma. In other words, having heard Buddhadharmas and developed ways of memorization without forgetting them is called the Hear-and-Retain Dharani.
 
接下来,还有一种叫作分别陀罗尼。这个分别陀罗尼的意思又更再进一步,主要讲的就是分别了知诸法,或是分别了知众生的心行;那么这个分别的部分,如果以分别了知诸法这个意思来讲,很显然它讲到的是你找到了一些关键的方式,使得你很容易在听亲教师或是善知识讲解新的法义的时候,你很容易用自己的方式去理解它;把新听到的这些佛法,把它分门别类吸收,然后归入自己的知识体系。
换句话说,就是在听闻的时候,很容易就能够上手,然后把这些知识内化成自己的知识体系的一部分。这个部分显然它所谈到的,就不再只是记忆的方法而已,因为它还得要有善于分别的妙用。
所以这个部分的分别的陀罗尼,显然就是一种理解的方法----理解吸收的方法。这个部分,也显然地比前面讲的记忆的方法要来得更为深入,因为它涉及了你对于之前所吸收到的法义,能够作有效的了解;并且以这个了解,让你能够对于未来听闻的法义能够分别无碍。当然这个部分,在前后法义的衔接的部分,是需要花一些心力的;所以掌握了分别的陀罗尼,它的境界其实比闻持更加地深入。
And there is another Dharani called Differentiating Dharani which has more advanced function and meaning. It’s about differentiating and understanding dharmas and the mental behavior of sentient beings. In terms of differentiating and understanding dharmas, it means the practitioner finds effective ways to enable himself to understand the meaning of the unheard doctrines explicated by the direct dharma teachers or enlightened mentors. He is able to systematically digest the Buddha dharmas just heard and make them his own knowledge. In other words, it is easy for him to get started when hearing the dharmas and absorb them as part of his own knowledge system. Apparently, this part of the function is not just a way of memorizing, it’s more about the marvelous function of knowing how to differentiate. Therefore, the Differentiating Dharani herein is more of a way to understand---a way of digesting and absorbing. It is obviously more advanced than the function of memorizing because it is an active and effective understanding process of all the dharmas heard before. And this understanding will enable one to differentiate with no difficulties all the dharmas that he will hear in the future. Of course, one still needs some efforts in connecting the dots for the dharmas acquired in different times. Based on the explanation above, we know that the function of Differentiating Dharani is more advanced than Hear-and-Retain Dharani. 
 
接下来,下一个有提到了所谓的音声陀罗尼。音声陀罗尼,什么样的音声能够总持呢?其实它不是在总持所有的音声,音声陀罗尼讲到的意思,其实是闻诸言音;就是听到了别人说什么样的话,或是发出什么样的声音,都不会因而特别的高兴,也不会因而特别的生气,也就是听到他人所发出的音声,不喜不瞋,这个叫作音声陀罗尼。
Next, we’ll have some discussion on the so-called Sound Dharani. What kind of sound can centralize all dharmas of sound and hold all meanings of it? Actually, the Sound Dharani does not mean to centralize or hold all the sounds.
It means to hear all words and voice without differentiating, meaning not to get happy or angry when hearing whatever words or sound from others. This is called the Sound Dharani.
 
所以这个部分陀罗尼跟它字面上的意思,稍微有一点差别,实际上它谈到的就是一种忍辱行。音声陀罗尼所牵涉到的,就是如何能够行忍辱的方法,这个部分当然就是说,你可以用各式各样的方法去达到忍辱行。
The Dharani discussed here is a little different from what it literally means. Infact, it is about the practice of forbearance. Sound Dharani addresses the ways of how to practice forbearance, which means one can use whatever ways he can think of to effectively achieve the practice of forbearance.
 
比方说,对于音声陀罗尼这件事情,你也可以循着 佛陀在《优婆塞戒经》里面的开示,佛陀说:当听到别人骂你的时候,你应该要仔细地思惟。就是说这个音声,当别人骂你的时候;比方说骂一句话的时候,这一句话在你听的那个瞬间,其实每一个字跟它的字音,都是分别抵达你的听觉系统的;所以说这个音声本身都是一个一个,它是单一一个存在的状况。
那么到底是谁把这些音声给连起来,才形成这些音声统一的内涵跟意思,以至于要因此而生气了呢?
那当然就是我们自己的妄心嘛!所以如果能够认知到音声彼此之间它的关联性,以及妄心把这些音声连起来的这些特性的话,我们就晓得实际上听到别人的音声,会因而喜或是因而瞋,全部都是我们自己后续的心行而已。常常这样观察的话,我们对于别人的毁谤,当然也就不容易生气起来了,这个也就是其中的一种音声陀罗尼。
For instance, regarding the Sound Dharani, you may also follow the Buddha’s teachings in the Sūtra on Upāsaka Precepts. The Buddha said: “When people call you names, you have to think carefully and thoroughly. Say someone is using abusive words on you, and the syllables of the words actually reach your auditory system one after another, which means the syllables exist independently as separate units. Then who is the one that connects all the syllables together to make a meaning out of them and eventually gets angry? Of course it’s our illusory minds! Therefore, if we understand how the sounds associate with each other and how the illusory minds connect them together, then we may understand that, in fact, that we are happy or angry after hearing the voices from other people is nothing but our own mental behavior that comes thereafter. If we can make such observation more often, we may not get angry easily when hearing other people’s false accusations on us. This is the Sound Dharani, one of the many.
 
那么再接下来还有其他的,比方说寂灭陀罗尼。这个寂灭陀罗尼讲到的就是说,我们如何在行住坐卧的观行里面,能够适当地把我们对于我们真心所自在拥有的寂灭的那些性质,在我们的行住坐卧中,让它能够透过观行,能够一一的体现。能够这样作的话,常常这样作的话,我们就会使得我们的妄心,越来就越能够追随着真心的层次,越来就越不会执着着境界,而达到了我们所谈到的寂灭的这些状况。所以,寂灭陀罗尼这个陀罗尼的方式,又跟前面所讲的闻持、分别、音声又是再进一步,并且有再更深入一点的法义的内涵。
Moreover, we also have Tranquility and Extinction Dharani. It is about how we let the characteristics of tranquility and extinction possessed by the True Mind manifest one by one through our behavior observation during walking, resting, sitting and sleeping. If we practice like this regularly, we will make our illusory minds opt for the state of the True Mind instead of clinging to the state of conscious mind and eventually reach the state of tranquility and extinction. Therefore, the Tranquility and Extinction Dharani is more advanced than either the Hear-and-Retain, or Differentiating, or Sound Dharani. It has much deeper meaning of Dharma.
 
当然还有许许多多其他的陀罗尼,比方说随地观陀罗尼、威德陀罗尼等等等等的许多的陀罗尼;乃至于说到最后总数,乃至于有五百项的陀罗尼这么多,当然我们就不一一介绍。可是从刚才的讲述的过程中,各位可以发现从我们上一次讲的最原始的陀罗尼的意思,只是单纯一种记忆方法,到最后它逐渐地深入演进,所以有分别陀罗尼,这是一种理解的方式;音声陀罗尼,变成一个忍辱的方式;寂灭陀罗尼,变成一个观行的方式等等;那你就会发现陀罗尼的意思,其实已经超过了原始的记忆的方式。所以我们在佛法里面,才会讲说陀罗尼其实讲的最正确的描述的方法,就是它是一个总持。你从简单的概念,或是简单的闻持,用它来帮你驾驭更复杂的概念或是更复杂的闻持。
Of course, there are still lots of other Dharanis, such as Observe-Anytime–and-Anywhere Dharani and Grand Virtue Dharani, etc. And if we count the total number of them, there are as many as five hundred. But we are not going to discuss them all one by one. From what we’ve already talked about, you probably have noticed that the most basic Dharani is just a way of memorization. And as we go deeper, there are Differentiating Dharani which is a way of understanding, Sound Dharani which is a way of forbearance, and Tranquility and Extinction Dharani which is a way of practicing behavior observation. You may have found out that the significance of Dharanis is beyond the basic method of memorizing. Therefore, we say that in Buddha Dharma, the best way to describe Dharanis is that they centralize all dharmas and hold all meanings. You may use a simple concept or a simple hear-and-retain to help understand more complicated concepts or hear-and-retains.
 
附带要提的就是在《大智度论》里面, 龙树菩萨曾特别针对陀罗尼有讲到,他说:“复次,声闻不大殷勤集诸功德,但以智慧求脱老病死苦;以是故,声闻人不用陀罗尼持诸功德。譬如人渴,得一掬水则足,不须瓶器持水;若供大众人民,则须瓶瓮持水。菩萨为一切众生故,须陀罗尼持诸功德。”(《大智度论》卷28) 龙树菩萨告诉我们说:声闻人如果口渴的话,他只要两手掬、把这个水两手环状掬一掬水来喝就够了,就可以解渴了,不需要特别去拿,一定要特别什么瓶子来持水。什么叫作声闻人呢?我们给大家作一个最简单、最简单的定义,声闻人就是随佛修学,但是只注重在自己解脱的人。换句话说,当他修解脱道之后,他就不会想要再修菩萨道了,所以当他修得解脱果的初果、二果、三果、四果,到最后到阿罗汉之后,那么他接下来就等着要入无余涅槃去了。一旦他入无余涅槃之后,三界里面再也见不到他的身影,他就自己在无余涅槃的境界里面解脱自在了。这就是我们给大家下的最简单的声闻人的定义。
By the way, I want to mention that in the Mahaprajna Paramita Sastra, Bodhisattva Nagarjuna said something specifically about Dharanis. He said: “Furthermore, sound-hearers (śrāvaka) do not accumulate virtues diligently, but rely on wisdom to seek liberation from the bitterness of aging, ailing, and death. For this reason, sound-hearers do not use Dharanis to hold all virtues. Just like a thirsty person, he only needs to use his hand to fetch water and no jar is needed. To get enough water for the masses, jars are necessary. Bodhisattvas are devoted for all sentient beings and Dharanis are needed to hold all the virtues” (Volume 28, Mahaprajna Paramita Sastra) Bodhisattva Nagarjuna told us that when a sound-hearer was thirsty, he fetched water with his hands and a handful of water would be enough to quench his thirst. He didn’t need a container. What is a sound-hearer? A simple definition is a sound-hearer refers to a person who follows the Buddha to practice and only cares about his own liberation. When a sound-hearer practices the Path to Liberation, he won’t care practicing further for the Bodhisattva Way. The fruitions that a sound-hearer attains include the first, the second, the third, and the fourth fruition (Arhat fruition) along the Path to Liberation. When he reaches Arhat (the fourth fruition), he will be waiting for his time to enter nirvāṇa without remainder. As soon as he enters nirvana, he can be found no more in the three realms thereafter. In the state of nirvāṇa without remainder he will be liberated and at ease. This is the simplest definition for a sound-hearer.
 
那菩萨跟声闻人又有什么不一样呢?菩萨从字面意思来看,就是觉有情。换句话说,菩萨是从来不会弃舍有情的,菩萨会为了一切众生,为了一切的有情,所以生生世世的自度度他;自己想办法精进道业,同时在精进道业的过程中,也一直在为着众生着想,怎么样来帮助周围的众生,让他周围的众生跟我们自己一样,也能够解脱成就、将来成佛,这个就是菩萨。所以,谈到声闻跟菩萨这两种人很大的区别,就是声闻最主要就是为了自己解脱,而菩萨不仅自己解脱,更心心念念的为着广大的众生的解脱在修行、在度人。
Then, what is the difference between a Bodhisattva and a sound-hearer? Bodhisattva literally means an enlightened sentient being. To put it in another way, a Bodhisattva would never abandon sentient beings. For all the sentient beings, he would liberate himself and others one life after another. At the same time when he endeavors to improve Dharma cultivation, he cares for all the sentient beings, thinking how he could help them to accomplish liberation so as to attain Buddhahood in the future, just like himself. This is what a Bodhisattva is like. Thus the big difference between a Bodhisattva and a sound hearer is that a sound-hearer mainly focuses on his own liberation, whereas a Bodhisattva not only works on his own liberation but always keeps his mind on the liberation of all the sentient beings.
 
按照这样的道理来说, 龙树菩萨为什么继续又把陀罗尼这件事情,比喻成好像是装水的容器呢?这是因为声闻人渴的时候,只要自己的双手去掬水,就能够解自己的渴;可是如果你要解其他人的渴的时候,显然你需要更有效的方式。菩萨就不像声闻人这样子了,菩萨不是为了自己解渴而已,更为了一切的众生要解渴,所以菩萨就需要瓶器持水,甚至需要瓶瓮持水,甚至需要更大的方式来为众生解渴。所以用这样方式,就是用来比喻说声闻人因为只要求自己解脱,所以他学到的法就够自己解脱就可以了;既然是要够自己解脱的话,表示说他所学到的法不会太复杂。
Then why did Bodhisattva Nagarjuna say that Dharanis were like water containers? That’s because when a sound-hearer is thirsty, he only fetches a handful of water to quench his thirst. However, if one wants to quench other people’s thirst, he would need a more effective way. Unlike a sound-hear, a Bodhisattva wants to quench thirst of all sentient beings. Therefore, he needs a bottle, or even a huge jar, to get water. He might even need a bigger solution to help quench all sentient beings’ thirst. So we use this way to illustrate that because a sound-hearer aims only at self liberation and therefore, he will be satisfied as long as the dharma that he cultivates can help him achieve this purpose. Since it’s for his own liberation, the dharmas that he learns won’t be that complicated.
 
从另外一个方式也可以看到的,声闻人从证初果开始,如果不退转的话,那么七返人天就可以证阿罗汉了;这样子一个时间,显然不管七返人天算起来到底是人间的多少年,总是七返这个数字,就已经放在那边了。
而菩萨,如果大家稍微有点印象的话,大家应该会知道菩萨成佛要三大阿僧祇劫的修行;光是一个劫,这个劫所代表的时间,就远远大于七返人天的过程了,何况是无量无数的劫呢?所以我们说菩萨成佛三大阿僧祇劫,那个时间跟声闻人比起来,可以说是长得无法想象的久远了。为什么要花这么多的时间呢?那表示说菩萨要学的法是非常非常多的。
We can also look at it in another way: when a sound-hearer starts with realizing the first fruition without regression, he will be realizing the arhat fruition in seven round trips between heavenly realms and human world. It does not matter how many years the seven round trips between heavenly realms and human world are converted to, the number of seven is already laid down black and white, which means the time needed is certain. As for a Bodhisattva, if everyone still remembers, to attain Buddhahood he will need to practice for three asamkhyeya eons (kalpa). A single eon represents way more time than that of seven roundtrips between heavenly realms and human world, not to mention countless eons. Therefore, the time that a Bodhisattva needs to attain Buddhahood is unbelievably long compared to that a sound-hearer needs to accomplish liberation. Why does it take so much longer? It’s because the number of dharmas that a Bodhisattva has to learn is tremendous.
  
简单来讲就是菩萨学的,就是要学我们的真心如来藏里面的一切种智;既然是一切种智,当然就是无量无边,这个就是为什么菩萨要成佛,要花这么长的时间。
然而菩萨要成佛、要为众生、要自度度人,要面对这么多、这么多的法,要上求佛道、下化有情;当然在广修六度万行的同时,就得要面对许许多多不同的法,那么这一些个法都需要有效的方式,让菩萨可以在学既有的法学了之后,再能够有效地继续学新的法进去;
所以在菩萨修学的过程中,陀罗尼特别、特别的重要。声闻人因为学到的解脱的方法,非常的单纯而简单,所以声闻人不需要特别的陀罗尼。
而菩萨特别讲究陀罗尼,如果用世间人所能够理解的方式来说,正因为菩萨要学非常多的法,所以菩萨学法的时候,特别讲究得要有阶段的目标;每一个阶段的目标,也得要有循序渐进的方法,这些阶段目标跟循序渐进的方法,它的内涵都可以用陀罗尼来代表。所以 龙树菩萨才讲说菩萨特别、特别的需要重视陀罗尼。
To put it in a simple way, what a Bodhisattva has to learn is the knowledge-of-all-aspects from the True Suchness, the tathāgatagarbha. Since it’s the knowledge-of-all-aspects, it must be massive. This is why it takes so much time for a Bodhisattva to attain Buddhahood. A Bodhisattva is going to attain Buddhahood and liberate himself and deliver all the sentient beings and he is going to come across a numerous number of dharmas. When he extensively practices the six paramitas, he will be seeing many different kinds of Dharmas, and he will need some effective ways to make himself capable of continuing learning. For this reason, Dharanis are exceptionally important for a Bodhisattva. A sound-hearer doesn’t need special dharan is because the way to liberation that he practices is much simpler and easier. A Bodhisattva gives special prominence to Dharanis. To explain it in an understandable way for regular people, it’s because there is so much for a Bodhisattva to learn and he sets and gives priority to phased goals during learning. Every goal for each phase needs to be proceeded in an orderly way. The meaning of these phased goals and orderly proceeding methods can be represented by Dharanis. That’s why Nāgārjuna Bodhisattva said a Bodhisattva pays exceptional attention to Dharanis.
 
另外,在《大智度论》里面也有谈到从陀罗尼开始,有带出另外一种比较特别的陀罗尼。
我们来看看《大智度论》里面 龙树菩萨怎么说:“诸陀罗尼法皆从分别字语生,四十二字是一切字根本。因字有语,因语有名,因名有义。菩萨若闻字,因字乃至能了其义。是字:初阿,后荼,中有四十。得是字陀罗尼菩萨,若一切语中闻阿字,即时随义,所谓一切法从初来不生相。”(《大智度论》卷48) 这一段这个论里面,龙树菩萨提到了特别的一种的陀罗尼。
Another special kind of Dharani is also introduced in the Mahaprajna Paramita Sastra when Dharanis are discussed. Let’s see what Bodhisattva Nagarjuna said in “Mahaprajna Paramita Sastra”:  “All Dharani dharmas arise from differentiating syllables and words, and these 42 syllables are the basis of all syllables. From syllables, words are derived; from words, names are derived; and from names, meanings are derived. When a Bodhisattva hears syllables, he will understand the meaning. These syllables start with Ah and end with Tu, having forty others in between.” When a Bodhisattva who has gotten this syllable Dharani hears the syllable Ah, he will understand its meaning immediately, which implies all dharmas are originally unproduced.” (Volume 48, MahaprajnaParamita Sastra) So, in this treatise, Bodhisattva Nagarjuna has mentioned a special kind of Dharani. 
 
龙树菩萨说:诸陀罗尼法皆从分别字语生。因为每一种包含闻持陀罗尼、分别陀罗尼、音声陀罗尼,种种的陀罗尼其实它都有代表性的名相,所以才说诸陀罗尼法皆从分别字语生。
接下来,下面一句就讲说四十二字是一切字的根本。他说有四十二个字是一切名相的根本,因为这些字所以才有了语言,有了语言才有了名字,有了名字之后才有了义理。为什么讲这四十二个字呢?它的意义非常像是、比方说我们在台湾地区所用到的注音符号;又或者像英文字母一样,拼音的文字系统里面都有所谓的字母,由这些字母拼起来之后,就可以形成所有的字词。
Bodhisattva Nagarjuna said, “Every Dharani comes from differentiating syllables and words. Every kind of Dharani, including Hear-and-Retain, Differentiating, and Sound Dharanis, has its specific representational name or term, hence, all Dharanis come from differentiating syllables and words. The next sentence then explains why these 42 syllables are the essence of all syllables: Because of these syllables we have language, because of language we have names, and because of names we have meanings. So why talk about these 42 syllables? Well, their significance is equivalent to the mandarin phonetic symbols (zhuyin) used in Taiwan, or the alphabet in the English language. All these language systems have letters and alphabets. When put together, they form meaningful words.
 
在当时的梵语体系里面,就是有这四十二个字的拼音在,从这四十二个字演进就可以拼出名相。那当时这些四十二个字它所包含的范围,比方说前面包含说是用“阿”,然后用或者罗、遮、波、那等等,这些都是当时梵语的根本音。所以 龙树菩萨才会说:初阿,后荼,中有四十,总共是四十二个根本音。用这四十二个根本音如何组成陀罗尼呢? 龙树菩萨举的例子是说,比方说“阿”这个字来讲,大家要记住在当时的梵语的体系里面“阿”是一个根本音;所以从这个根本的“阿”这个字,我们就赋予它“阿”这个字,让它代表一切法不生这个意思。
There were 42 syllables in Sanskrit language back then and these syllables evolved and formed names and terms. These 42 syllables, such as Ah, Luo, Zhe, Bo, and Nuo, are the base letters of Sanskrit. That’s why Bodhisattva Nagarjuna said “first Ah, last Tu and forty others in between, a total of 42 syllables”. So how to compose Dharanis with the 42 base syllables? The example Bodhisattva Nagarjuna gave is that Ah denotes the meaning of all dharmas non-arising.
 
什么叫一切法不生呢?不管是从二乘或是从菩萨来讲一切法不生,其实所谈到的最根本,得要从所谓的无生忍谈起。
那么无生忍最根本的,就是我们所认知到的平常我们所认知到的妄心,也就是我们常常觉得很真实的这个我;其实它的本质是虚妄的,它并没有名,并没有像我们所以为的真实性;甚至可以说,从来就没有生起“我”这个真实的意义在,所以所有你所感知到的,不外乎是蕴处界的运作而已。这个就是无生忍这个部分,对于人“我”的这个部分所察觉到的一个事实。
What does all dharmas non-arising mean? In terms of the all dharma non-arising for either Two Vehicles path or Bodhisattva path, we need to start with the essence, the acquiescence to non-arising (the anutpattika- -ksanti). The core to the acquiescence to non-arising is to accept that the minds or the seemingly true self we perceive regularly are illusory. Neither do they have name, nor any authenticity we think it does. We can even say that there has never been a true meaning for having a sense of the self. So what we feel and perceive is nothing but the function of the aggregates. And this is the anutpattika-ksanti. This is a truth that we acquire when observing the self of human beings.
 
在声闻人或是在菩萨都可以在无生忍方面有所修证,他们都共同的对于一般世间人所执着的我相,能够予以有效的破斥。
可是声闻人跟菩萨在无生忍这方面有根本的差别,就是声闻人最多只有看到蕴处界的运作,因此破斥了我人虚妄的存在;
可是菩萨就不只是如此,菩萨实际上是证悟了本心如来藏,证悟了实相心之后,从实相心的立场,再反过来看看我们虚妄的这个世间凡夫的“我”,所以这个中间的胜妙,远远不是声闻人所能够比拟的。
Both a sound-hearer and a Bodhisattva may practice and realize the anutpattika-ksanti and both of them may see through and denounce the appearance of the self that regular people are attached to.
However, in terms of realizing the anutpattika-ksanti, a Bodhisattva differs significantly from a sound-hearer. A sound-hearer can only see the functionality of the five aggregates and refute the illusory existence of the self and others.
What a Bodhisattva realizes is much more. He is authentically awakening to the True Mind, the Tathāgatagarbha. Afterwards, he can see the illusory self in this secular world from the perspective of the True Mind. So, the wondrous and subtle dharmas that a Bodhisattva realizes are way beyond a sound-hearer’ imagination.
 
所以就这个“阿”字门来说,谈到的就是一切法不生,谈到的就是无生忍这个范围;当然它还有详细的其他的意思,我们就留到下一个讲次再来跟大家说。
今天我们就先上到这里。
阿弥陀佛!
To conclude, the dharma that the syllable Ah designates is all dharma non-arising, which is part of the anutpattika-ksanti. Of course there is much more about it and we will leave it to the next time.
Amitabha!
 
 

 

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