设为首页 | 加入收藏 | 手机版 | 如来藏网:倡导正知正见正修正行的学佛门户网站

热搜: 涅槃  三乘菩提  悟道  菩提  公案  十信

当前位置:如来藏网>佛法基础>佛学探源>文献学>

【三乘菩提】实证佛教 [英文] The Positivist Buddhism

[文献学]  发表时间: 2019-04-04 08:17 点击: [放大字体正常缩小] 关闭
----佛学研究不是佛法实证
----佛学教育不是佛法实修
Buddhist Studies are not realization of Buddha Dharma
Buddhist Education is not actual practice of Buddha Dharma
 
上个单元,我们跟各位介绍“三乘菩提的关系”,我们上次也跟各位介绍,在佛法修学要实证八识心,所谓实证这个心,就是说明佛教整个的内涵,所采用的方法就是实证的方法。那什么叫实证的方法呢?也就是要把八个心全部找出来。
In the previous episode, we introduced the“relations between the three vehicles”. We also introduced the goal of practicing and learning Buddhism which is to realize the eight consciousnesses. The realization of the eight consciousnesses covers the whole content of Buddhism. The approach we adopted is the empirical method. What is the empirical method in this case? It is to find out the eight consciousnesses.
 
我们说实证的方法,事实上,在我们生活中也是常常会有的。譬如我们台湾有一种水果莲雾名为黑珍珠,它甜度很高,大家都很喜欢;如果有人说,莲雾这个水果怎么可能很甜呢?那很简单,他直接到菜市场去走一遭,去买了来吃,他就知道了,这就是实证的方法。所以我们要讨论八个识的话,也是用同样的方法,也就是我们直接把它找出来,可是当我们在找这些心时,事实上是有方法的,也就是说,如果要实证这八个心,要先相信有这八个心可以来找,所以要皈依三宝,具足福德、慧力、定力,要有这些条件,就好比说,要实证黑珍珠的甜度,那我们总是要有金钱来买它。如果说没有金钱,因为黑珍珠很珍贵,价格很高,如果有人没有钱买,就说我没吃过,它不存在,这样就不符合道理了。那我们说的八个识里面的第八识如来藏,好比是我们每一个人的明珠,所以祂非常的珍贵,我们要实证祂的时候,需要有福德、慧力、定力种种的因缘,具足这个因缘就可以实证。我们不能像有些人,譬如说有些人不相信有细菌,他认为我没有看到细菌。可是我们知道,要看到细菌,需要显微镜。如果想要看遥远的星空,有没有星星存在呢?有没有什么样的星座存在呢?那他需要望远镜。不可以说自己没有显微镜、望远镜,就否认说世界没有细菌,就否认说遥远的天空里面没有星星,这样就不符合道理。也就是说,要了解法界实相,就要具备一些工具,工具可以帮助我们实证法界的实相。所以我们所说实证佛教,就是要运用正确的方法,而这个方法就是实证的方法。
In fact, we use this method in our daily life very often as well. For example, there is one fruit called wax apple, also known as “black pearl” in Taiwan. Because of its sweetness, it is very popular in Taiwan. If someone wonders how sweet this fruit tastes, the easiest way is to go to the market directly to buy one and taste it. After taking a bite, he will know it. This is what we call the empirical method.
Similarly, when talking about the eight consciousnesses, we need to find them out directly and there are methods to do that. To begin with, we need to stick to the belief that there are eight consciousnesses we can realize. And, we need to take refuge in the Three Jewels (Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha) and have accumulated sufficient merits, virtues and wisdom, and reached a good level of concentration. Having these conditions is just like having money to buy a “black pearl” to test its sweetness. Thus, it seems irrational that one would negate the existence of “black pearl” simply because he has no money to buy one to taste.
In the eight consciousnesses, the eighth consciousness, Tathagatagarbha is just like everyone’s pearl, so it is very precious. Before realizing it, we should be equipped with merits and virtues, wisdom, and a good level of concentration. Once we have all necessary causes and conditions, we will be able to realize it. For example, we should not  be like some people who don’t believe the existence of germs just because they can’t see them. To see germs, one should have a microscope. To see the remote stars or constellations, one should have a telescope. We can’t deny the existence of germs and stars just because we don’t have a microscope or a telescope. That is, we need to be equipped with some tools in order to understand the true reality of the dharma-realm. These tools will help us to prove the reality of the dharma-realm. Therefore, the reason that we call Buddhism Positivist is because we need to use the correct approach which is the empirical method to prove it is true.
 
那我们听到人家又会说:“为什么佛教很强调摧邪显正呢?正觉同修会也很强调摧邪显正呢?好像都要把是非对错,分得很清楚,彼此针锋相对,难道不能和谐地相处吗?不能互相包容吗?”事实上有这样的意见的人,就是对于实证的佛法有所误解。就好比说,我们有小孩,把小孩送到学校去学习,我们送小孩去学习时,很害怕他交到坏朋友,学到错误的东西。我们自己身为一个生命,我们是一个生命,可是我们对于生命的实相,并不了解,我们就应该要来探讨,什么是生命的智慧、知识,我们总不会想,去修学去探讨生命实相的内容,结果都是错误的,都不符合实相,如果不符合实相,又如何顺利解脱呢?要能够解脱于三界,成就佛道,一定是要能夠符合法界的实相,一定是具有知识性、智慧性,如果没有智慧、知识,那如何能够顺于解脱,如何能够成就佛道呢?在《增一阿含经》中佛陀开示说,祂自己有六个法,没有厌足,其中第五个是将护众生没有厌足。也就是说,佛陀对于保护众生不要继续流转生死,祂是永远不会讨厌的,也永远不会满足的。佛陀还有第六个没有厌足的法,就是追求无上正真之道。也就是说,佛陀追求法界的知识、智慧,祂是永远没有讨厌,也是永远不会满足的。
We may hear some people say: Why does Buddhism put so much emphasis on destroying the incorrect teachings and manifesting the correct ones? Why does the True Enlightenment Practitioners Association also emphasize so much destroying the incorrect teachings and manifesting the correct ones? It seems that they tend to tell right from wrong and the line they draw is so clear. They tend to go head to head with some other groups. Why can’t they get along with other groups peacefully and harmoniously? In fact, those who hold this opinion misunderstood the positivism of Buddhism. It is just like raising a kid. When we send the kid to the school, we are worried that he may make bad friends and learn something wrong. We are living beings, but we are ignorant of what the truth of lives is, therefore, we would want to study it and we would want to know the wisdom and knowledge of lives. Who would want to study and practice on the wisdom and knowledge of lives which is erroneous and does not conform to the reality?  How can one obtain liberation from practicing on the erroneous wisdom and knowledge?
If one wants to be liberated from the three realms of existence and attain the Buddhahood, what he learns must conform to the reality of the dharma-realm. He should acquire profound true knowledge and wisdom. If not, how can he obtain liberation and further attain the Buddhahood?
In the Ekottara āgama, the Buddha expounds that he commits himself tirelessly to six practices, among which the fifth is the protection of sentient beings. That is, the Buddha never feels tired of liberating sentient beings from transmigrating in the cycle of birth-and-death. The sixth practice the Buddha commits himself tirelessly to is the pursuit of the unsurpassed right and true Path. That is, the Buddha never gets tired of or satiated with the seeking of the knowledge and wisdom about the dharma-realms.
 
意思就是说,如果有一件事情,某个人持某一个观点,另外一个人持另外一个观点,两个人的意见完全相反,而不能共存。譬如,有没有第八识存在,这种存在的问题,是彼此相反而不能共容的,对于这样的事情,佛陀一定要把它弄清楚。如果佛陀对于某一个东西,到底存不存在,这种彼此不能共容的意见,佛陀说:“我可以接受,我可以让两个意见彼此互相包容、和平相处,有也可以,没有也可以。”如果佛陀对于这样的事情可以包容,表示佛陀对于这件事情,还是有无明;如果还有无明,那佛陀就不能成就佛道了。所以说佛陀对于追求无上正真之道,永远没有厌足!意思就是说,释迦牟尼佛所以成就佛道,就是因为不愿意跟任何的邪见和平共处。如果祂去包容邪见,表示祂还有这个邪见,表示祂愿意跟无明相处在一起,愿意跟它和平相处,愿意包容邪见,这样就没办法成为佛陀了。因为佛陀有个称号叫作正遍知!正遍知的意思是说,对于法界所有的内容,祂是完全了知的。只要有一点点的事情,不能了知,就不能成就佛道。释迦牟尼佛之所以成就佛道,就是因为对于任何一个邪见,都不能容忍、包容,因为祂不能容忍,不能包容邪见,所以释迦牟尼佛最后成就佛道!因为这个道理,佛陀希望每一个众生成就佛道;佛陀也用这样的道理,来将护众生,来保护众生,让众生离开邪见而不要沦堕恶道,让众生修学人乘、天乘、声闻乘、缘觉乘,最后迈向成佛之道!所以成佛之道,就是对于一切的内容完全了知,对于法界的实相完全了知;只要有一点点的邪见存在,就不能成就佛道,佛陀就用这个方式将护众生!
That means, when one holds one opinion and the other holds another opinion toward the same matter and their viewpoints are completely contradictory to each other, there must be a right opinion and awrong one. To be specific, in terms of the controversial issue about the existence of the eighth consciousness, the Buddha must make it clear. If the Buddha is asked the controversial question regarding whether something exists or not and says that He is completely tolerant of different opinions, it means that the Buddha is still ignorant of it. If the Buddha still has ignorance, He is unable to attain the Buddhahood. Therefore, the Buddha is never tired of and satisfied with pursuing the unsurpassed and ultimate wisdom. That is, Buddha Sakyamuni could attain the Buddhahood because He was reluctant to make peace with misconceptions (erroneous views). If He tolerated misconceptions, it means that He himself still had misconceptions and was willing to go with ignorance, which would make him unable to attain the Buddhahood. The Buddha has another name called the One with Right and Universal Knowledge which means that He understands the entire content of dharma realms completely. If He was a little uncertain about anything, He was unable to attain the Buddhahood. Buddha Sakyamuni could attain the Buddhahood because He was totally intolerant of any misconceptions. Being unwilling to tolerate misconceptions, Buddha Sakyamuni attained the Buddhahood eventually. Based on this, the Buddha hopes all sentient beings will be able to attain the Buddhahood, so He helps sentient beings stay away from misconceptions, saving them from transmigrating to evil paths and further teaching them human vehicle, deva vehicle, sound-hearer vehicle (Sravaka), solitary-realizer vehicle (Pratyeka-buddha) and then the way to the Buddhahood eventually. Therefore, before attaining the Buddhahood, one should have right and universal Knowledge about the reality of the dharma-realm. If he has any misconceptions, he is unable to attain the Buddhahood. This is how the Buddha saves and protects sentient beings.
 
那我们也有听到一些人会问说:“同修会的平实导师,好像没有师承,到底谁来印证他是悟或没悟呢?”这也是很多人问的问题!我们可以想:什么印证释迦牟尼佛成佛呢?事实上,这是同样的问题!事实上 平实导师明心见性,是由什么印证呢?就是由法界实相来印证!法界到底有没有八个心?如果有八个心,把八个心实证出来,就是由法界实相来印证。同样的问题,释迦牟尼佛在二千五百多年前成就佛道的时候,也有外道质疑:“释迦牟尼佛!你如何可以说是成就佛道呢?”
Some may argue that Venerable Pings Xiao doesn’t have a teacher, so who can prove he got enlightened? This has been a hotly debated issue. Let’s see: What proves Buddha Sakyamuni has attained the Buddhahood? In fact, these two are the same questions. What formally validates Venerable Pings Xiao got enlightened and saw the Buddha-Nature? The answer is the reality of the dharma-realm. Are there eight consciousnesses in the dharma-realm? If there are eight consciousnesses in the dharma-realm, find them out. That is, reality of the dharma-realm can help to prove our realization. Similarly, after Buddha Sakyamuni attained the Buddhahood 2,500 years ago, non-Buddhists questioned the Buddha by asking Him how he could say that he had attained the Buddhahood.
 
在《阿含经》中有一部《梵动经》,《梵动经》里说,在当时古印度有沙门、婆罗门,修学四禅八定,乃至五神通,他们可以看到自己在前一世,再往前推,一直推,可以推到多劫之前,跟很多众生一起生、一起死,常常聚会在一起;这个沙门、婆罗门,就产生一种邪见,就认为:“我的意识可以跟过去世联结在一起,也看到我的色身一直都存在!”因为这样他就产生一种邪见:“我的意识、我的色身是永恒存在的。”他会看到在很多劫里面,确实是这样的事实。释迦牟尼佛成就佛道之后,如何破斥这样的邪见呢?祂就是把一些外道,帮助某一些人断了我见,让他成为阿罗汉;因为他已经先具足四禅八定,所以断我见就成为阿罗汉;成为阿罗汉之后,释迦牟尼佛就会授记他得第一记。
等这位阿罗汉命终时,佛陀授记阿罗汉命终之后,不会在三界中出现。那当时的这些沙门、婆罗门,有四禅八定五神通,他们就去观察阿罗汉命终之后,是不是在三界六道出现?结果他们观察之后发现,阿罗汉命终之后,确实在三界找不到!因为这个缘故,所以释迦牟尼佛所授记的阿罗汉命终之后,确实让外道沙门、婆罗门,不能在三界中发现那位阿罗汉。因为这样的事实,当时的沙门、婆罗门,对于释迦牟尼佛都完全信服,都相信释迦牟尼佛,确实可以让众生解脱于三界六道,不在三界六道之中继续出生而轮转于生死。因为这个缘故,佛陀用这个事实来证明,声闻菩提确实可以让一切众生解脱于生死,所以由于法界实相、法界的事实,印证释迦牟尼佛确实成就佛道。平实导师则是由于实证第八识如来藏,并且帮助弟子也实证如来藏;实证眼见佛性的境界,并且也帮助弟子实证眼见佛性的境界;而且符合三乘经典至教量,所以大家共同认定他是真的开悟。
In "Brahmājala Sutta in the Agama Sutra", it depicts that in ancient India, there were monastic practitioners and Brahmans practicing the four dhyanas and the eight samadhis and progressively acquiring the five supernatural powers. They could see their previous lives, and even to the extent that they could see countless eons during which they were born and died with many other sentient beings. Therefore, these monastic practitioners held some misconceptions, thinking that the sixth consciousness could be linked to the past lives, and seeing that the physical body existed all the time, so they believed both the sixth consciousness and the physical body to be eternal. It is true that they could see what had happened during the countless eons. However, how did Buddha Sakyamuni, after attaining the Buddhahood, refute their wrong conception that the sixth consciousness and the physical body are eternal? In order to refute a wrong conception like this, He helped those who belonged to non-Buddhist schools to eliminate misconceptions about the self and become arhats. Because they had already achieved the four dhyanas and the eight samadhis, they became arhats right after eliminating their misconceptions about the self. After they became arhats, Buddha gave them the first assurance, assuring that they would not reappear in the three realms after death. At that time, these monastic practitioners and Brahmans who had mastered the four dhyanas and the eight samadhis checked whether any of those arhats would reappear in the six paths of rebirth in three realms. They couldn’t find any. Because of the Buddha Sakyamuni’s assurance of what would happen after the arhats’ death, the monastic practitioner of non-Buddhist schools and Brahman couldn’t find them again in the three realms, thus were fully convinced of what Buddha Sakyamuni had said and firmly believed that Buddha Sakyamuni had the ability to help them liberate from transmigrating the cycle of births-and-deaths in the three realms. The Buddha used this fact to prove to people that all sentient beings could be liberated from the cycle of births-and-deaths by practicing sound-hearer vehicle. Therefore, the reality of the dharma-realmhas validated that Buddha Sakyamuni had attained the Buddhahood. Venerable Pings Xiao is widely believed to have got enlightened and seen the Buddha-Nature because he had helped many followers realize the eighth consciousness and the state of seeing the Buddha-Nature. His sayings correspond to the Buddha’s ultimate teachings in sutras; therefore, we all agree that he has truly got enlightened.
 
也有人问:“听说大乘是后来才兴起,大乘经典没有结集史,大乘经典来路不明,不大能够相信祂的内容。”关于大乘兴起的问题,在上个单元已经解释过,声闻部派佛教之后的大乘兴起,已经是第二次兴起。提出这样问题的人,事实上,他对于如何确定经典的内容,也是不能完全正确的了知。我们读《阿含经》,在《游行经》中佛陀说:要确认经典,事实上,也是采用实证的方法。譬如佛陀在《游行经》说四大教法,第一个教法是说,如果有人说他亲自从佛陀那里听到教法,最后它就成为一本经,这样的经典不应该怀疑、毁谤。可是佛陀也说:要跟其他的经典一起来比对它的一致性。同样的道理,如果有人说,他从其他的僧团、多闻长老那里听到经典;佛陀说:这样的经典不应不信、毁谤。这是第二教法,从佛陀亲自听闻的是第一大教法。第三大教法:若有人从很多的比丘、比丘尼那里,听闻到一部经,也不应不信、毁谤,可是应该根据其他的经典,一起来验证有没有一致性,这是第三大教法。第四大教法,是从某一个比丘听来的,一样的道理,也不应不信、毁谤,而是要把它跟其他的经典一起比对。所以佛陀的意思是:所有经典不管是亲从佛闻,或是从僧团、多少比丘,或是从一个比丘那听到,首先要比对经典的一致性。
Some say that the Great Vehicle thrived later, there is no history of collecting sutras in the Great Vehicle and the sources of Great Vehicle are unknown, so the content of the Great Vehicle is unreliable. Regarding the thriving of the Great Vehicle, we discussed and explained in the previous episode. The thriving of the Great Vehicle following the Sectarian Buddhism is actually the second revival. Those who raised such a question, in fact, are confused with how to check the correctness of the sutras. In Travelling and Practicing Sutra (遊行经 Dà Xíng Jīng, proper noun Ba Xing Jing / Mahāparinibbāna Sutta / Mahāparinibbānasutta 
Domain: Buddhism 佛教, Subdomain: Theravāda Buddhism 上座部佛教 http://ntireader.org/words/42756.html)
of The Dīrgha āgama Sutra, the Buddha said that the way to check the correctness of the sutras is through the empirical method.
For instance, in the four grand teachings in “Travelling and Practicing Sutra", the Buddha expounds that if someone heard the Buddha’s teaching in person which was collected and edited into a sutra later, he should not suspect and slander such a sutra. But the Buddha added that such a sutra should be compared and checked with other sutras for its consistency. In the second teaching, the Buddha expounds that if someone heard a sutra from other monastic groups (Sangha communities) or well-instructed elders who had heard much about the Buddha’s teaching, he should not suspect and slander sucha sutra. In the third teaching, Buddha expounds that if someone heard a sutra from many Buddhist monks (bhiksu) or Buddhist nuns (bhiksuni), he should not suspect and slander such a sutra. Instead, he should compare and check the sutra with the other sutras for its consistency. In the fourth teaching, Buddha expounds if someone heard a sutra from a Buddhist monk (bhiksu), he should not suspect and slander such a sutra. Instead, he should compare and check the sutra with the other sutras for its consistency. Therefore, what the Buddha means is that any sutras, heard in person from the Buddha, monastic groups, many Buddhist monks, or a Buddhist monk, should be checked and compared with the other sutras for its consistency.
 
我们可以知道三乘的阿含经、大乘经,所说都是八识法,是有一致性的(案:详阅《阿含正义》第七辑中的举证)。可是只有一致性还不够,佛陀说“当于诸经推其虚实,依律、依法,究其本末”。(四大教法——《长阿含经》卷3《游行经》)也就是说这些经典说的都是八识法,如果说的不是八识法,一定是错误,一定不是真正的经典。即使所说的是八识法,也要来验证它的内容是不是符合法界的实相?是不是一个事实呢?就是要“推其虚实”,而且还要“究其本末”:它所说的内涵是根本法呢?还是一个枝微末节?所以一样要用法界的实相来验证,这就是实证的方法。
As we can see, the Agama Sutra and Mahayana sutras of Three-Vehicle Bodhi have consistency because they all talk about the eight consciousnesses. (c.f. Please refer to the examples mentioned in the seventh book of “The Correct Meanings of Agama Sutras”). However, if only the criterion of consistency is applied to examine a sutra, the credibility of that sutra is still insufficient. In "Travelling and Practicing Sutra in Volume 3 of The Dīrgha āgama Sutra", the Buddha expounds that we should radically examine the credibility of all sutras and thoroughly explore their core essence based on disciplines (vinaya) and dharmas of eight consciousnesses dharma. That is, these sutras all talk about the eight consciousnesses dharma. If a sutra doesn’t talk about the eight consciousnesses dharma, it is definitely wrong and it must be a false sutra.
In spite of the fact that a sutra talks about the eight consciousnesses dharma, we should also examine whether its content conforms to the reality of the dharma-realm. We should examine its credibility and thoroughly explore its core essence, that is, thoroughly discuss and study its content, whether it talks about the root or about branches, based on the reality of dharma-realm. This is what we call the empirical approach.
 
我们举一个例子,譬如有一本《一切如来心秘密全身舍利宝箧印陀罗尼经》,这是一部在密教部里的一部经,它说到:“如来心秘密全身舍利”,就是在讲如来的法身,它说如来的法身,犹如胡麻子。什么叫作胡麻子呢?就是芝麻!说胡麻子重迭无隙,就是如来的法身像芝麻一样,把它重迭之后都没有间隙,就称为佛陀的法身。可是我们知道,如果佛陀的法身,是由这些胡麻子构成的,那胡麻子本身是根本,佛陀的法身反而不是根本?从法界的实相,从一个实证者的眼光来看,法身不是因缘聚合的,若是由像芝麻一般的聚合起来的,那它还是因缘聚合所成立的;将来因缘坏时,还要消散掉,那就变成法身是不坚固的。所以我们从这部“经典”所说的内容,可以来判定这部经典是错误的经典。虽然它也说有法身,可是它所说的道理,推其虚实后,可以知道它是虚伪的;究其本末可以知道,它说的是枝微末节、错误的。所以一样要用实证的方法,来验证经典,知道经典要有一致性,还要跟法界实相来验证。
For example, there is a book called “Sarva tathagata dhisthanahrdayaguhyadhatu karanda mudra-dharani (Dharani of the Seal on the Casket (of the Secret Whole-body Relic of the Essence of All Tathagatas)”, in which it is mentioned that the secret relics (sarira) of Tathagata, also known as the dharma-body of Tathagata are like Sesamum indicum. Sesamum indicum is also known as sesame. The sutra mentions that the dharma-body of Tathagata is likesesames seamlessly overlapping one another. However, if the Buddha’s dharma-body is made of sesames, sesames themselves are the root, butthe Buddha’s dharma-body. From the perspective of the reality of dharma-realm or a true enlightened one, the dharma-body does not exist under the causes and conditions. If it is accumulated like sesames, it is formed by causes and conditions. Thus, it will come to an end as soon as the causes and conditions vanish. In this way, the dharma-body itself is destructible and not firm. From the content of this sutra, we can tell that it is a false sutra. Although it speaks of dharma-body, its content on dharma-body is fallacious. After having been thoroughly examined, its content is proved wrong. Therefore, empirical method has to be used to verify what has been attained is consistent to the sutras and to the reality of the dharma-realm.
 
那我们就来回答说,为什么大乘经典不需要结集史呢?因为大乘、二乘所修是不一样的。虽然大乘跟二乘所修学,都一样是法界的实相,可是因为大乘、二乘,修学的内容是有点差异的,所以小乘的经典,它需要有结集史,大乘不需要结集史。因为小乘的结集史,已经证明小乘的经典是正确的,证明确实要有第八识,表示法界中就是有八个识。那既然小乘经典已经证明有八个识,那大乘呢?大乘菩萨跟声闻人不一样,因为声闻人没有实证到第八识;声闻的阿罗汉,最后把自己灭除掉之后,“于未来世,成不生法——《杂阿含经》卷12”,表示他要入无余涅盘,是要等他命终之后灭尽五阴十八界,他才真正入了无余涅盘,可是入了无余涅盘的状况是如何呢?他还是不知道,还要等到未来世成为不生法;可是成为不生法时,他没有存在了,没有自己存在来验证这个事实。所以它需要有结集史特别辅助,因为他所证的内容,只是生灭的这些法;所以他要把一切的五阴灭掉之后,最后成为不生法(却已不能验证自己已经成就无生),所以二乘法需要有经典来印证,因为它要相信及依止佛的所说。
Now, let us answer the question why the record of the history of collecting sutras is not necessary for the Great Vehicle. It is because what is practiced in the Great Vehicle is different from that in the Small Vehicle even though both of them are the reality of the dharma-realm. Since the learning content and practice is quite different, the Small Vehicle needs the history of sutra collecting while the Great Vehicle does not. Because the history of collecting sutras for the Small Vehicle has proved that the sutras of the Small Vehicle are all correct, and has proved the existence of the eighth consciousness and the eight consciousness in the dharma-realm. Since the sutras of small vehicle have proved the existence of the eight consciousness, let alone those of the Great Vehicle. Bodhisattvas in the Great Vehicle are different from the sound-hearers because the sound-hearers do not realize the eighth consciousness. In “Samyuktagama Sutra volume 12”, the Buddha expounds that the arhats in the Sound-hearer Vehicle will not be reborn after terminating the selves. It means that they will terminate their five aggregates and eighteen sense-realms and enter the remainderless nirvana after death. They will never know what the state of the remainderless nirvana is when they accomplish this non-arising dharma, namely entering the remainderless nirvana after death. That is because while accomplishing this non-arising dharma, they do not exist in three-realm and without the existence of selves, they can not validate this truth. Therefore, the history of collecting sutras is especially needed to assist sound-hearers in understanding the content of the remainderless nirvana because when the arhats are still alive in the human world, they can only validate the dharma of arising and ceasing. However, in order to accomplish the non-arising dharma, they need to terminate their five aggregates. While accomplishing the non-arising dharma, they would not be able to testify that they had accomplished the non-arising dharma.Therefore, there should be sutras to validate the dharma in the Small Vehicle. That is, they need to stick to what the Buddha has expounded in the sutras of small vehicle.
 
可是大乘不是如此,大乘所证的如来藏,是永恒存在的法,表示祂是过去就已经存在,而且到现在还继续存在,那以后呢?还是继续存在。所以大乘所实证的如来藏,祂是现前可以验证的。也就是说,就好比我们去市场,去作一个买卖,去买个东西,结果是我们马上买了,他马上交付了;请问在那种状况之下,我们还需要订立交货契约吗?不用嘛!就好比在禅宗里面,是以心印心啊!是当场之下就已经把真实心交付给对方;既然当场就已经交付给对方,就已经证明确实有真如,确实有如来藏的存在;所以祂根本不需要结集史,就可以来证明大乘经典的正确。因为小乘的经典中,就已经证明有八个识;小乘经典中既然已经说有八个识,而且有结集史可以证明其正确性,所以大乘经典同样是八识,何必要有重复的结集史呢?大乘因为是实证第八识,也可以现前证实,所以它不需要结集史。
On the contrary, the Great Vehicle does not need the record of the history of collecting sutras. What the Bodhisattvas in the Great Vehicle validate is Tathagatagarbha, the eighth consciousness. It is the eternal dharma which means it existed in the past, it exists now and it will continue to exist in the future. The Tathagatagarbha that the Bodhisattvas have validated in the Great Vehicle can be observed and experienced at any moment once one has realized it. It is just like going to the market to buy things. We pay and we get what we want. Under such circumstances, we don’t need to sign a transaction agreement to facilitate the transaction.
Similarly, in Chan (Zen) School, the way to prove one’s realization is to verify the mind with the mind, directly showing where the eighth consciousness is on the spot to the one who has already got enlightened. In this case, they have mutually validated the existence of the eighth consciousness, so even without the record of the history of collecting sutras, they can prove the sutras in Great Vehicle are correct. Since the sutras in the Small Vehicle has proved that there are eight consciousnesses and the history of collecting sutras can prove its correctness, the sutras in the Great Vehicle also say there are eight consciousnessses, therefore, there is no need to locate the history of collecting sutras for the Great Vehicle. The Bodhisattvas in the Great Vehicle realize the eighth consciousness and have the ability to observe and experience its existence.
 
我们这一节的内容,就是跟各位介绍,实证的方法是整个佛教最核心的方法,其他的方法都是错误的方法。我们在下一节,就要跟各位介绍,三界的所有状况,跟各位介绍“三界和解脱果”的关系。
In this unit, we have introduced that the core method in Buddhism is realization. In the next unit, we will introduce the relations between the three realms and the fruition of liberation.

------《佛法基础之佛法概论》  <实证佛教>  正礼老师

本文标签: 本文关键字:三乘,菩提,实证,佛教,英文,The,Positivist,
愿所有功德回向:

自归依佛,当愿众生,体解大道,发无上心;自归依法,当愿众生,深入经藏,智慧如海;自归依僧,当愿众生,统理大众,一切无碍。

愿以此功德,庄严佛净土;上报四重恩,下济三涂苦;所有见闻者,悉发菩提心;尽此一报身,同生极乐国。

Copyright © 2015-2018 如来藏 www.rulaizang.cn 版权所有
京ICP备15020842号